Publication:
IMPACTO EN EL CONSUMO DE ENERGÍA DEL SECTOR CPR AL IMPLEMENTAR CERTIFICACIONES SUSTENTABLES: LEED, CES y CEV

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Date
2018
Authors
ROJAS GUZMÁN, ROBERTO ANTONIO
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Research Projects
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Abstract
In 2012, the first National Energy Strategy (2012-2030) was created, it´s first core subject was a focus on "Growth with Energy Efficiency". Subsequently, the new Energy Policy of Chile called "Energy 2050" is published, in 2015, which focuses on meeting specific goals by 2035 and by 2050. This last policy was to be based on 4 main concepts: Sustainability, Inclusivity, Competitiveness and Reliability, which in turn, proposes four core aspects: "security and quality of supply", "energy as a motor of development", "energy compatible with the environment" and "efficiency and energy education". In relation to Energy Efficiency “efficiency and energy education”, the Energy Policy indicates the following: "To achieve greater progress in terms of energy efficiency, an adequate legal framework is needed to promote the efficient use of energy in different types of consumers. We must propose actions to be implemented by the large energy consumers (industrial, mining and transport sector); homes, businesses and small industry; the buildings and the public sector; and promote the development of an energy services industry that can provide efficient and innovative solutions". (1) Therefore, energy efficiency is vitally important in buildings, the CPR sector represents 22.7% to 2016, within which the Residential sub-sector represents 70%, the Commercial 25% and the Public 5%; added to the fact that different studies project growth in consumption, makes it necessary to study and implement energy efficiency actions in buildings to lower their consumption rates and approach an efficient use of energy, and by those means, meet the Energy Policy of Chile "Energía 2050" goals. There is sound evidence that the implementation of energy efficiency actions in the initial stages (concept design and developed design) of a project or building will generate a bigger impact on decreasing overall costs. Therefore, Sustainable Certification systems present a great opportunity to achieve energy efficiency. LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design - USGBC (2)), CES (“Certificación de Edificio Sustentable” - IC (3)) and CEV (“Calificación Energética de Viviendas” - MINVU (4)) are. three certifications systems that are more present in the Chilean market. In this sense, this report aims to develop an estimation of energy consumption reduction in buildings within the Commercial, Public and Residential sub-sectors based on the energy saving possibilities provided by the LEED, CES and CEV certifications. Because energy consumption is mainly caused by human beings whilst carrying out their daily activities, and that there is currently a general lack of knowledge of what and how they consume their energy, it is necessary to understand the human dimension of energy consumption, and this can help direct and amplify energy savings. The behavior, choices and energy-smart practices play a key role in the availability of additional sources of energy savings and ensure that these savings are maintained in the long term. Cases such as the energy home labelling in other countries show that when information is provided on the efficiency of housing, consumers adopt the most efficient technologies, that is, they begin to choose more efficient buildings; which happens when the link between savings for energy efficiency and saving money is explicit. The 3 mentioned certification systems have been analyzed in relation to their administration, operation and energy saving possibilities in order to define their potential to be massively introduced in the Chilean market. In this sense, CEV would allow households to generate savings in energy consumption between a 0% and 70%, CES would allow their buildings to generate savings in energy consumption between 10% to 50% and LEED would allow their buildings to generate savings in energy consumption between 5% to 50% plus 10% for the implementation of energy self-production based on Not-conventional renewable energies. According to the Energy Balances of the CNE, is possible to analyze the CPR sector and its sub-sectors from the year 1997, since that year the Balances are detailed by separating the Commercial, Public and Residential sub-sectors. Total energy consumption of the CPR sector has been steadily increasing since 1997 with a total of 51,730 Tcal to 62,373 Tcal in 2016, which implies a 20.6% increase throughout this 9 year span. From the characterization of each of the three sub-sectors, three scenarios in energy consumption for the year 2050 are defined (high, medium and low), on which 3 different saving scenarios are analyzed (optimist, base and pessimist), therefore, there are 9 results for each sub-sector that are summarized according to the following:  Residential subsector. Energy demands by 2050 are between 103 MTcal and 65 MTcal, while savings are between 4.45% and 17.17%.  Commercial subsector. Energy demands by 2050 are between 34 MTcal to 20 MTcal, while savings are between 9.78% and 19.6%.  Public Subsector. Energy demands by 2050 are between 4.1 MTcal and 2.4 MTcal, while savings are between 7.61% and 12.61%. Finally, the following are the main conclusions: The Residential subsector is well characterized, it allows generating accurate estimates of energy demand over time and its possible savings, on the other hand, the Public and Commercial sub-sectors must be characterized in detail to make a complete estimate of their demand for energy. and its potential savings, since currently there is not enough level of detail to achieve it. The projected savings for the entire CPR sector between 2017 and 2050 can mean up to 434,104 Tcal, which is equivalent to 1,57 times the total consumption of the CPR sector in 2016. This study suggests that potential savings defining energy efficiency actions in new buildings allow generating large savings in the long term (20 to 30 years), these correspond to lower percentages with respect to the total of consumptions for each sub-sector. In this sense, Sustainable Certifications are a good option when defining energy efficiency measures in the long term for buildings. On the other hand, Sustainable Certifications do not represent an alternative for the improvement in energy consumption in the short term since the existing buildings correspond to a higher percentage of the total, must generate public policies or incentives based on plans that consider both new buildings like existing ones, in order to balance low-cost and long-term actions with greater short-term investment actions that make buildings more efficient in an integral way.
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LEED , CES , CEV , EFICIENCIA ENERGETICA , SECTOR CPR , CERTIFICACIONES SUSTENTABLES , POLITICA ENERGETICA
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